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Power battery recycling

2020-04-24

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Power battery recycling and utilization

In the 21st century, the number of fuel vehicles in my country has continued to increase, but limited to my country's special energy structure, the pressure of oil self-sufficiency has gradually increased. At the same time, the pollutant emissions of traditional fuel vehicles remain high, putting tremendous pressure on my country's environmental protection industry. As my country’s emerging pillar industry, the new energy automobile industry has demonstrated good compatibility with large-scale renewable energy, a good fit for continuous consumption upgrades, and the environmental protection characteristics of almost no pollution during the use of the entire vehicle. The broad prospects of intelligent network collaboration have jointly promoted energy-saving and new energy vehicles to be among the 10 key areas of "Made in China 2025".


With the vigorous development of my country's new energy automobile industry, the amount of power battery scrap has gradually become a scale, and it is imminent to promote the recycling of power batteries, the cascade utilization of decommissioned batteries, and the regeneration of scrap batteries. Forecasts show that since China began to promote new energy vehicles in 2009, the power batteries retired from new energy vehicles will reach 32.2GWh by 2020. The power battery recycling market will reach about 6.5 billion yuan in 2020, of which the cascade utilization market will be about 4.1 billion. According to industry estimates, starting from 2018, my country's new energy vehicle power batteries will enter a large-scale decommissioning stage, and recycling companies will soon usher in profit points brought about by economies of scale.



Recycling overseas experience

At present, the United States, Germany, Japan, and France have made early arrangements for battery recycling and reuse, which is of great reference for domestic industries in the initial stage.。


In the United States, the United States Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) and the United States Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) have been established successively to continuously promote and educate the public and guide the public to cooperate with the recycling of used batteries. In terms of application, the United States has done systematic research on the economic benefits, technical and commercial feasibility analysis of power battery cascade utilization, and there are currently related demonstration projects and commercial operation projects. General Motors and AB are cooperating to test how to use Chevrolet Volt's battery pack to collect electrical energy and feed it back to the grid, and finally realize home and commercial power supply. After an attempt, the five sets of used Chevrolet Volt batteries were reintegrated into a modular device, which can support two-hour power supply for 3-5 ordinary American households.


In Germany, TUV SÜD was commissioned by the German Federal Institute for Building to participate in a research project on the use of electric vehicle batteries. The project plans to establish an energy storage application demonstration project in Berlin, Germany, and is funded by the German Energy and Climate Research Institute. In addition, Bosch Group, BMW and Wattenford have launched a cooperative project on the reuse of power batteries. The project uses the retired batteries (whole packs) of BMW ActiveE and i3 pure electric vehicles to build a 2MW/2MWh large-scale photovoltaic power storage system.


In Japan, Nissan and Sumitomo Corporation jointly established 4REnergy, which is committed to the recycling of lithium batteries for electric vehicles. The scrap batteries of Nissan Leaf cars sold or leased in Japan and the United States can be used as energy storage equipment for residential and commercial use. Toyota used the used batteries of the Camry hybrid vehicle for the energy storage and power supply of the Yellowstone National Park facilities, and redesigned the energy storage battery management system. 208 Camry batteries can store 85kWh of electricity, which doubles the battery life. In addition, the current relatively new utilization method is a vertical street lamp based on a single battery pack. This product is powered by the waste batteries and solar energy of the Nissan Leaf model and does not need to rely on the power grid. Specifically, the waste batteries in electric vehicles are integrated into street lights, and solar modules are added to the top of the street lights to charge the batteries during the day.

Current status of domestic power battery recycling: a hundred schools of thought contend! In February this year, the seven ministries and commissions led by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the "Interim Measures for the Management of Recycling and Utilization of Power Batteries for New Energy Vehicles", proposing to implement the extended system of producer responsibility, putting automobile manufacturers at the top of their responsibilities, and also encouraging automobile and battery manufacturers. Scrap car recycling and dismantling companies cooperate with comprehensive utilization companies to build recycling channels. Therefore, according to the current domestic policy direction, China's recycling model will be an industry alliance model led by production companies. At present, alliances and cooperation between enterprises have started. CATL holds a controlling stake in Bangpu Cycle, opening up the industrial chain of cascade utilization and recycling. Guoxuan Hi-Tech and Jinchuan Group jointly build battery recycling and recycling lines through equity cooperation. BAIC New Energy takes a stake in Ganzhou Highpower, a subsidiary of Xiamen Tungsten Industry, and at the same time implements cascade utilization by relying on the Jiangxin Battery Company. Shanshan shares and battery company Kaitai New Energy jointly invested in the establishment of a battery recycling company, and will continue to strengthen cooperation to create a system energy solution that combines energy storage and power saving, photovoltaic power generation and solar storage.

The cascade utilization of power batteries is the transformation of batteries whose capacity is reduced to less than 70-80%, and they are used in fields such as energy storage and low-speed electric vehicles. When the cost of using the power battery in the cascade is 1 yuan/kWh and the cycle life exceeds 1500 times, its cost performance will exceed that of the lead-acid battery. Therefore, in addition to the combination of the above battery companies and car companies, upstream minerals and battery materials companies, power equipment companies that actively deploy grid energy storage are also looking for cooperation projects with cascade power batteries.


The cascade utilization of power batteries is the transformation of batteries whose capacity is reduced to less than 70-80%, and they are used in fields such as energy storage and low-speed electric vehicles. When the cost of using the power battery in the cascade is 1 yuan/kWh and the cycle life exceeds 1500 times, its cost performance will exceed that of the lead-acid battery. Therefore, in addition to the above-mentioned battery companies and car companies, upstream mining and battery materials companies, power equipment companies that are actively deploying grid energy storage are also looking for cooperation projects with cascade power batteries.

Shanghai Electric Group Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "Shanghai Electric") is one of my country's comprehensive equipment manufacturing groups. Its leading industries focus on the four major areas of high-efficiency clean energy equipment, new energy and environmental protection equipment, industrial equipment and modern service industries. Shenzhen Puland Energy Storage Technology Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "Pland Energy Storage") is a new energy technology company dedicated to the development of economical smart energy storage systems. The company's research focuses include recycling technology for retired electric vehicles, cascade battery regeneration technology, and next-generation low-cost lithium battery technology.In December 2017, Shanghai Electric and Plant Energy Storage Technology signed a strategic cooperation agreement. The two parties will form in-depth cooperation in the application of power batteries in energy storage systems. In January this year, the first batch of 200kWh lithium iron phosphate cascade batteries were sent to Shanghai Electric, and the Shanghai Experimental Bureau was formally established. In addition to forming a strategic cooperation with Shanghai Electric, at the end of 2017, Plande Energy Storage worked closely with Shenghong Electric to ship the world's first Plande regenerative battery based on cascade power batteries to Zhuhai, and jointly established a 0.8MWh outdoor container for Zhuhai Gaoyuan Electric. Energy storage system. It is understood that the regenerative battery developed by Plant Energy Storage is a battery product that uses its unique battery regeneration technology to repair the performance of retired power lithium batteries. This product has the advantages of long cycle life, excellent safety characteristics, good temperature performance, low cost, and environmental friendliness comparable to new batteries, and can effectively solve the economic problems of using cascade batteries for energy storage. At present, the Zhuhai Gaoyuan Industrial and Commercial Energy Storage System is operating well.


   New energy vehicles are an emerging strategic industry in the country, and the rapid development of the industry will make a large number of power batteries retired in 2018 and beyond. If the retired batteries are directly recycled and disassembled, resources will be greatly wasted. Echelon utilization of decommissioned batteries is conducive to improving the economics of the new energy vehicle's full life cycle, and can also bring positive significance for energy conservation and environmental protection.

   The "Interim Measures for the Management of the Recycling and Utilization of Power Batteries for New Energy Vehicles" clarifies the responsibilities and directions for the recycling and utilization of power batteries. From a policy perspective, it encourages cascaded use of power batteries before dismantling and recycling. Among them, power battery plants, vehicle companies, recycling and utilization companies, and downstream application companies have all actively participated in the national call, stepped up the layout, and searched for a reasonable business model for power battery echelon, forming a new energy vehicle industry. New air outlet.

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